Publication update 21: Project Pteropus press release: Durian Industry May Suffer Without Endangered Fruit Bats

Flying foxes pollinate regionally important fruit crop

Kuala Lumpur, 19 September – Scientists here have discovered that Southeast Asia’s highly popular durian tree is pollinated by locally endangered fruit bats known as flying foxes.

By putting camera traps in durian trees on Tioman Island, Malaysia, researchers collected video evidence showing the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) pollinating durian flowers, leading to the production of healthy durian fruit. The study has just been published in the journal Ecology and Evolution.

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Still shots from a video recording of a flying fox feeding on durian flower nectar.

The spiky tropical durian fruit is highly prized throughout its native region. A ubiquitous icon of Southeast Asian culture, it is also a lucrative industry, generating millions of US dollars in local and international trade. And these economic profits owe a huge debt to bats.

Commonly referred to as flying foxes, large fruit bats of the genus Pteropus are severely threatened by hunting and deforestation. They are often sold and eaten as exotic meat due to an unsubstantiated belief that consuming them can help cure asthma and other respiratory problems.

On top of this, they are also persecuted and killed as agricultural pests, as some people claim that the bats cause damage and economic loss by feeding on cultivated fruits. Consequently, these factors have led to severe declines in flying fox populations worldwide.

Yet these bats actually play very important roles as seed dispersers and pollinators in rainforests, especially on islands. The disappearance of flying foxes could thus have disastrous repercussions for tropical ecosystems. Now, this international team of researchers from Malaysia, France, India, and Thailand, in collaboration with Tree Climbers Malaysia, has found that Southeast Asia’s durian supply could be affected too. Continue reading

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Project update 21, publication update 19: Project Pteropus delivers results!

Sheema completed her PhD in Ecology last November, when she successfully defended her thesis at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. Now comes the good part: sharing the results, data and information from her research! We’re happy to announce that 2 new papers from her thesis just got published this month.

Fruit bats are important ecosystem service providers, pollinating flowers and dispersing seeds over long distances. Instead of protecting these useful flying mammals however, humans are threatening their survival through hunting and persecution.

Finding out what flying foxes eat is a first step towards discovering what flowers they pollinate and what seeds they disperse. This will help strengthen the cause to promote their protection. Project Pteropus started investigating this question in 2015, and now, the results of the analysis are finally out! We’ve made a first start towards answering the question of ‘What do the Tioman Island flying foxes eat?’

Identifying flying fox food plants by collecting and analysing droppings

PeerJ image Continue reading

Project update 19, photo update 11, video update 6: Project Pteropus phase 1 in review

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It’s definitely been a crazy, roller coaster ride for Project Pteropus so far! Time flies when you’re having fun, and before we knew it, we’re already in the third and final year of Sheema‘s PhD. We’re due to start a tiny bit more of fieldwork over the next 3 months, then everything needs to be wrapped up pronto as she’ll be on her way to spend 6 months in Paris this June 🙂

So what has the project achieved so far? Some pretty exciting stuff, as it turns out. Almost all the data are in already, but some still need a bit of time to be analysed. We’ve decided to summarise our results so far into an interim report, which is why you’re getting this bumper post that serves as a compilation of updates, photos AND videos all at the same time! 😀

Also, HUGE thanks to Bat Conservation International for awarding us a small grant in September last year. Without this funding we definitely wouldn’t have been able to achieve as much as we have, and we’re deeply grateful. Click on the BCI logo below to find out more about applying for their small grants:

BCI logo

Meanwhile, here’s what we’ve found out up to this point (if you’re just interested in the images and don’t need to read through the information, just scroll down further!): Continue reading

Publication update 18: Bats in the Anthropocene

Chapter 13

If you’d like to learn more about bats, don’t miss out on downloading this brand new, open-access book on bat conservation edited by Tigga Kingston and Christian Voigt‘Bats in the Anthropocene: conservation of bats in a changing world’. Thanks to partial funding from SEABCRU, this online book is completely free to download, either in whole or as separate chapters. Continue reading

Publication update 17: Kenyirus sheema – a new land snail species from an old rainforest

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Holotype of the new species Kenyirus sheema. Foon, Tan and Clements, 2015.

The Belum-Temengor Rainforest Complex (BTFC) in the State of Perak covers a cross section of Peninsular Malaysia’s terrestrial ecosystems from lowland rainforests at the foothills to tropical montane cloud forests in the highlands. This 300 sq km of wilderness is home to healthy populations of mammalian megafauna including the critically endangered Malayan Tiger, Panthera tigris jacksoni. In fact, the remarkable state of ecosystem preservation in BTFC makes it one of the most critical regions in Peninsular Malaysia for the conservation of almost every group of rainforest flora and fauna. However, it was a cherry-sized snail that particularly caught the attention of Reuben, during one of his routine mammal surveys in BTFC one morning in February 2009. Continue reading

Video update 5: Project Pteropus takes flight

Did you know that International Bat Night is taking place in a week’s time??? Sadly, the Asia-Pacific region isn’t participating, and Malaysia won’t be holding any bat-related activities for that (a situation that we need to change!).

However, we felt that in conjunction with this, it is particularly fitting for Rimba to release the official Project Pteropus video! Sheema publicly unveiled this video during her presentation at the 3rd Southeast Asian Bat Conference (SEABCO2015) in Kuching this month.

This video highlights our work on fruit bats, and also aims to spread awareness on the importance of flying foxes and why we should conserve them. We hope to come out with a shorter, more general version soon, and in different Southeast Asian languages too!

Share away and help to spread the message!

Photo update 10: Camera traps and durian trees

Wow, and just like that, we’re already halfway into Year 2 of Project Pteropus! We’ve been quite busy on Tioman, what with faecal sampling and phenology monitoring now taking place on both east and west sides of the island. We also have some very good news to share: the project will be able to keep going for the rest of the year, as the Rufford Foundation have awarded us a small grant – which we are enormously grateful for!

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Meanwhile, it’s high time for another photo update. Back in late April and early May, we put some Reconyx camera traps and Bushnell video traps up in some flowering durian (Durio zibethinus) trees. This will help us study the durian’s pollination ecology better – what animals visit to feed on the flowers, and how each species in this complex network plays a role, and interacts with the others, to influence pollination success and fruit development. It’s also a start in answering the question of whether flying foxes help to pollinate durian trees. This is an extremely complicated bit of research, and we wouldn’t have been able to do it without Dr. Sara Bumrungsri and his PhD student, Tuanjit Sritongchuay (Dr. Bumrungsri’s study discovered that the nectarivorous bat Eonycteris spelaea is a principal pollinator of durian in southern Thailand). They kindly entertained all of Sheema’s questions and requests, and were extremely generous hosts when Sheema visited their lab at Prince of Songkla University – where they taught her more about durian ecology and pollination studies.

Mak Long Hapsah and Pak Long Awang from Kampung Juara have generously allowed us to use their durian orchard for our study. As their trees are already quite old and tall – ranging between 15-25 metres high, we couldn’t climb them ourselves. So we enlisted the services of Saifful Pathil and Muhammad Nur Hafizi Abu Yazid (‘Fizie’ for short!), from Tree Climbers Malaysia. They are professional tree-climbers who are extremely well-trained in safe and effective climbing techniques, using high-quality climbing and safety equipment. So we knew right away that we were in good hands.

We were also joined by Kim McConkey and her sons Sanjay and Ryan, who not only helped us out but were also loads of fun to have around!

So for those of you who have never seen a durian tree, or maybe don’t know what durian flowers look like, or have no idea what professional tree-climbing is all about…here’s a little photo-journal documenting our work in the durian orchard! Also, follow the post all the way down for a little sneak peek of who’s been visiting the durian trees in the night… Continue reading